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Ibed above. With phosphorylation of extracellular-signalregulated kinase (ERK) inducing nuclear translocation staining was predominantly nuclear with a few cases also showing cytoplasmic staining. Scoring of p-ERK1/2 was done blinded to the CNKSR1 results using standard intensity scores above (0 = no staining, 1 = weak staining, 2 = moderate staining, 3 = strong staining). In addition, the percent
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Galectin-1 transfectants. A population of GFP-sorted cells (the "Gal-1" bars in Figure 4A) was compared to its parental counterpart. The number of metabolically-active cells attached to fibronectin was no different between the two lines at eight hours. Changing the media at four hours reduced the number of cells left for labeling, but the effect was equal in both groups, suggesting a similar rate
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Ioblastoma in general. In conclusion, the orthotopic glioblastoma xenograft model recapitulates not only the invasive phenotype, but also the regional expression profile reported in human samples of glioblastoma multiforme. The value of the model (i.e., abundant tissue, high-quality RNA, andToussaint et al. Molecular Cancer 2012, 11:32 http://www.molecular-cancer.com/content/11/1/Page 10 ofFigure
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Man T lymphocytes. J Immunol 1998, 161:2114?119. 47. Rubinstein N, Alvarez M, Zwirner NW, Toscano MA, Ilarregui JM, Bravo A, Mordoh J, Fainboim L, Podhajcer OL, Rabinovich GA: Targeted inhibition of galectin-1 gene expression in tumor cells results in heightened T cellmediated rejection; A potential mechanism of tumor-immune privilege. Cancer Cell 2004, 5:241?51. 48. Kuppner MC, Hamou MF, Sawamura
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Is transcriptionaly regulated by ERK in response to Triphala treatment suggesting ERK as an upstream regulator of p53 in Capan-2 cells. We also observed that Triphala induce apoptosis by ERK activation in BxPC-3 cells, which has mutated p53. This is in part consistent with the observation that activated ERK lead to apoptosis after DNA damage in a p53 independent manner [49]. On the other hand, Tri
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Ental counterparts. We did not observe, however, distant invasion in U87MG tumors over-expressing galectin-1. The U87MG model is in fact weakly invasive in the brains of immunocompromized mice [33,34], while it is associated with pronounced neoangiogenesis processes [37]. Further work (e.g. viral transduction) with our patient-derivedToussaint et al. Molecular Cancer 2012, 11:32 http://www.molecul
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Erulescens green fluorescent protein; FACS: Flow-assisted cell sorting; SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate; MTS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2(4-sulfophenyl)-2 H-tetrazolium; MTT: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide; CCD: Charge-coupled device. Competing interests None of the listed authors have competing interests related to the publication of this man
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Bryos In the early embryo, the cells forming the embryo proper constitute only a minor volume of the embryo compared to the large yolk cell (Fig. 1B). The abundance of yolk proteins interferes with any proteomic application that intends to target the cells of the embryo proper. The major yolk protein Vitellogenin, a phospholipo-glycoprotein,Page 1 of(page number not for citation purposes)BMC Devel

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