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Two samples for which only gag or nef was typed, these were classified as belonging to CRF11_cpx. Notably, despite subtypes B and C collectively accounting for approximately 75 infections worldwide [16], none of our sequences were classified as belonging to either of these clades. In 10/46 samples from which both nef and gag sequences were analysed, they were classified as belonging to different
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Mpled sequences are likely CRF02_AG (accounting for 50 of HIV-1M infections), with the other "pure" subtypes (G, D, A, and F) and CRFs (CRF11_cpx, 36_cpx, 37_cpx, and CRF01_AE) accounting for the remainder of infections. CRF02_AG and clade G viruses are broadly distributed across west central Africa and have apparently been circulating stably there for many years [3,17-19], consistent with the pr
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Two samples for which only gag or nef was typed, these were classified as belonging to CRF11_cpx. Notably, despite subtypes B and C collectively accounting for approximately 75 infections worldwide [16], none of our sequences were classified as belonging to either of these clades. In 10/46 samples from which both nef and gag sequences were analysed, they were classified as belonging to different
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Ing time (mean generation time = mgt) was calculated according the formula: N = N02T/mgt. On the average, doubling time of ZK cell lines is between 12 h to 16 h in RPMI complete medium (Fig. 2). Like their parental primary AMs isolated from the MS-/- mice, all of the cell lines are adherent but trypsin-sensitive for passage. Morphology Light microscopic examination of Diff Quik, a modified Wright-
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Zed SRBCs, only rare unopsonized SRBCs appeared bound to ZK1 cells; most cells did not have any unopsonized SRBCs attached. After binding, these unopsonized SRBCs were easily lysed away (Fig. 5A). Approximately 80 of ZK1 cells were positive for FcR-mediated phagocytosis of opsonized SRBCs (Fig. 5B). Similar results were seen in ZK2 and ZK6 clones (data not shown). Decreased binding and phagocytos
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Bited a 325-bp PCR product, whereas SR-AI/II-/- mutant allele showed a 434-bp PCR product. MARCO wild type allele exhibited ca. 500-bp PCR product, and MARCO-/- mutant exhibited ca. 850-bp PCR product. All of the three cell lines are stable and Mycoplasma-free by Mycoplasma PCR ELISA test (Roche, Indianapolis, IN) during culture in the past 24 months.SR-AI/IIM WT ZK1 ZK2 ZK6 MMARCOWT ZK1 ZK2 ZKMAR
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Bited a 325-bp PCR product, whereas SR-AI/II-/- mutant allele showed a 434-bp PCR product. MARCO wild type allele exhibited ca. 500-bp PCR product, and MARCO-/- mutant exhibited ca. 850-bp PCR product. All of the three cell lines are stable and Mycoplasma-free by Mycoplasma PCR ELISA test (Roche, Indianapolis, IN) during culture in the past 24 months.SR-AI/IIM WT ZK1 ZK2 ZK6 MMARCOWT ZK1 ZK2 ZKMAR
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Zed SRBCs, only rare unopsonized SRBCs appeared bound to ZK1 cells; most cells did not have any unopsonized SRBCs attached. After binding, these unopsonized SRBCs were easily lysed away (Fig. 5A). Approximately 80 of ZK1 cells were positive for FcR-mediated phagocytosis of opsonized SRBCs (Fig. 5B). Similar results were seen in ZK2 and ZK6 clones (data not shown). Decreased binding and phagocytos

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