1
In HeLa cells. Autophagy. 2011;7(1):27?9. 64. Debnath J, Mills KR, Collins NL, Reginato MJ, Muthuswamy SK, Brugge JS. The role of apoptosis in creating and maintaining luminal space within normal and oncogene-expressing mammary acini. Cell. 2002;111(1):29?0. 65. Fung C, Lock R, Gao S, Salas E, Debnath J. Induction of autophagy during extracellular matrix detachment promotes cell survival. Mol Biol
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S, could result in cytoskeletal collapse and synaptic disconnection. Alternatively, the finding could reflect neuronal loss associated with neurodegeneration. The reduced levels of ChAT reflect deficits in acetylcholine homeostasis that contribute to cognitive impairment with neurodegeneration [101,102]. Correspondingly, in preliminary studies, we detected evidence of significant spatial learning
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Ry. Early limited exposure to NDEA had no significant effect on any of the indices measured relative to control. Chronic HFD feeding significantly increased the mean levels of pGSK-3b, GFAP, and N-Tyr relative to all other groups (P
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Gs of: 1) increased risk for developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, or AD in individuals with T2DM [7,27] or obesity/dyslipidemic disorders [28]; 2) progressive brain insulin resistance andinsulin deficiency in AD [29-32]; 3) cognitive impairment in experimental animal models of T2DM and/or obesity [33,34]; 4) AD-type neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in experimentally indu
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In brain [85-88]; 2) cause cytotoxicity and insulin resistance [83,88]; and 3) are increased in brains with neurodegeneration [85,89-91]. We measured mRNA levels of ceramide synthases (CER), UDP glucose ceramide glycosyltransferase (UGCG), serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC), and sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases (SMPD), due to their demonstrated relevance to neurodegeneration [45,83]. HFD feeding
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S described elsewhere [79]. For molecular and biochemical assays, cerebella were snap-frozen in a dry ice-methanol bath and stored at -80 . We studied cerebellar tissue because the cerebellum: 1) requires intact insulin/IGF signaling to maintain its structural and functional integrity [80,81]; 2) is severely damaged by i.c.-STZ mediated neurodegeneration [19,22]; 3) although relatively spared, it
1
S described elsewhere [79]. For molecular and biochemical assays, cerebella were snap-frozen in a dry ice-methanol bath and stored at -80 . We studied cerebellar tissue because the cerebellum: 1) requires intact insulin/IGF signaling to maintain its structural and functional integrity [80,81]; 2) is severely damaged by i.c.-STZ mediated neurodegeneration [19,22]; 3) although relatively spared, it
1
In HeLa cells. Autophagy. 2011;7(1):27?9. 64. Debnath J, Mills KR, Collins NL, Reginato MJ, Muthuswamy SK, Brugge JS. The role of apoptosis in creating and maintaining luminal space within normal and oncogene-expressing mammary acini. Cell. 2002;111(1):29?0. 65. Fung C, Lock R, Gao S, Salas E, Debnath J. Induction of autophagy during extracellular matrix detachment promotes cell survival. Mol Biol